Geology, by definition, is the study of the earth. Geologists study the materials that make the earth, their structure, and the various processes that act upon them. Additionally, geology also includes a study of the various organisms that have been inhabitants of the planet. Geologists therefore, must study the history of the planet earth, because by studying its history, they are able to forecast future events and how these past occurrences influence events in the future.
Geology and Earth Processes
Geology studies processes that include volcanic eruptions, floods, earthquakes, and landslides, and how they can negatively affect human beings. The studies carried out inform people on where they should be careful to avoid large or important structures and buildings that could be damaged by a future event. They map out past events such as floods in order to predict where a flood could possibly occur. By so doing, they are able to offer guidance on where communities can settle or develop. They are also able to determine if flood insurance and flood protection is necessary in an area.
Geology and the History of the Earth
Climate change has taken center stage over the last few decades. By studying the history of the earth’s climate changes, geologists may be able to understand the climate changes currently occurring and how they will affect the earth’s inhabitants over time.
Geology and the Earth’s Materials
Materials from the earth are used on a daily basis. They include metals, rocks, water and oil, all of which come from under the earth’s surface. Geologists have the work of studying various rocks so they can locate those that carry precious metals. They then do the work of planning the mines and working on the methods that will be best for extracting the various metals from the said rocks. They use their expertise to locate groundwater, natural gas, and to produce oil as well.
Modern day geologists use technology such as geology software to get the job done. They gather information about the earth that is highly useful to humanity. In fact, geology is key to the success of other disciplines such as evolutionary biology, civil engineering, and climatology. There are different categories of geologists as follows:
- These ones study the distribution and properties of water reservoirs that occur naturally under the earth. They study the effect of drawing water from these reservoirs as well as how they are replenished by rain water.
- Engineering geologists. These ones study the chemical and physical properties of soil and rocks. This information is very important when it comes to the construction of tunnels, roads, dams, or bridges.
- This geologist focuses on how the earth works on the inside. They look at tectonic plate shift, collision, breakup, as well as amalgamation. They are also involved in the study and location of mineral deposits.
- These are geologists who study historical environmental conditions and climates through the study of fossils. They study deposits found in the soil and rocks in order to get clues about things that happened in pre-historic times.